Timed Measures

Gait Speed

Sensitive predictor of declining physical mobility, discriminate between fallers and non-fallers, classify household from community ambulators, and has normative scores.  
Minimal Clinically Important Difference is  .05-.10 m/s

Timed Up and Go

Assesses mobility, balance, walking ability, and fall risk in older adults including sit to stand, walking forward, turning around, and stand to sit.  Age norms and cut offs for fall risk, independence in ADLs, and need for assistive device have been established.

Quality Measures

Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA)/Tinetti

Lower level measures gait and balance,  scored on ability to perform specific tasks.  Add 3 tasks to SPPB and POMA is competed:  1. Standing perturbation, 2. standing eyes closed, 3. standing feet together.

Modified Gait Abnormality Scale

Higher level valid measure of 7 gait variables associated with risk of falling, can be used in conjunction with gait speed to get quality and quantity measures.  Can be used if Tinetti/POMA is too basic.

Dynamic Stepping and  Walking

4 Square Step Test

Assesses ability to step fwd, back, right and left over 1 inch object.  Cut offs have been established for fall risk (>15 sec = high fall risk).

Figure of 8 Walk Test (F8WT)

The F8WT uses a path where the participant is asked to walk a figure of eight shape around two cones. Scores are recorded in three areas: 1)  speed (time for completion), 2) amplitude (number of steps taken), and 3) accuracy or "smoothness".

Functional Gait Assessment (FGA)

The FGA assess postural stability in walking performing motor tasks including head turns and nods, fast walk, stopping and turning, step over objects, eyes closed to simulate a dark room, stairs, etc.  It is adapted from the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI)